Mao zedong。 Mao Tse

10 Horrible Facts About Mao Zedong's Policies and His Personal Life

Mao's official portrait hung on the wall with a banner reading: "Carry on the cause left by Chairman Mao and carry on the cause of proletarian revolution to the end". Mao found that his articles had achieved a level of fame among the revolutionary movement, and set about soliciting support in overthrowing Zhang. In 1971, the girl told her parents about the relationship which led her father to write an angry letter to Mao. He ensured that no massacres took place in the region, and pursued a more lenient approach than that advocated by the Central Committee. He organized the Association for Student Self-Government and led protests against school rules. Mao directed operations to the minutest detail. Ideologically a , his theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as. The highest-ranking Soviet Bloc intelligence defector, Lt. After years of ill health, Mao suffered a series of heart attacks in 1976 and died at the age of 82. He later became a founding member of the Communist Party of China CPC and its chairman. How do you think Mao's childhood influenced his later years? His plan was to attack the KMT-held city from three directions on September 9, but the Fourth Regiment deserted to the KMT cause, attacking the Third Regiment. Increasingly interested in the techniques of war, he took a keen interest in , and also began to develop a sense of solidarity with workers. ' "There are many sides of Mao. Mao's army made it to Changsha, but could not take it; by September 15, he accepted defeat and with 1000 survivors marched east to the of. " Some historians argue that Mao Zedong was "one of the great tyrants of the twentieth century", and a dictator comparable to and , with a death toll surpassing both. Following Peng's criticism of the Great Leap Forward, Mao orchestrated a purge of Peng and his supporters, stifling criticism of the Great Leap policies. And all of them shared an ideology in which the end justified the means. They named the boy Mao Zedong. In the wake of this expedition, peasants rose up, appropriating the land of the wealthy landowners, who were in many cases killed. A founder of the CCP Communist Party , he played a major role in the establishment of the Red Army and the development of a defensible base area in Jiangxi province during the late 1920s and early 1930s. But the plan overlooked the fact that sparrows also eat insects. Mao's embalmed body, draped in the CPC flag, lay in state at the for one week. In his first school year, Mao befriended an older student, ; together they went on a walking tour of Hunan, begging and writing literary couplets to obtain food. In the last years of his life, Mao was faced with declining health due to either or, according to his physician, , as well as lung ailments due to smoking and heart trouble. He continued organizing workers to strike against the administration of Hunan Governor. Mao Zedong was a man with big dreams, and unfortunately, he also tried to make them become real — regardless of whether they were possible. In an attempt to re-assert his authority, Mao launched the 'Cultural Revolution' in 1966, aiming to purge the country of 'impure' elements and revive the revolutionary spirit. "They think, 'I would rather go back to Mao's generation. PLA lieutenant colonel Zhang Zhenglu, who documented the siege in his book , compared it to : "The casualties were about the same. Others, such as , hold that Mao launched the Cultural Revolution to wreak revenge on those who had dared to challenge him over the Great Leap Forward. All opposition was ruthlessly suppressed. Facing internal problems, members of the Jiangxi Soviet accused him of being too moderate, and hence anti-revolutionary. Main article: Youth and the Xinhai Revolution: 1893—1911 Mao Zedong was born on December 26, 1893 in village,. Mao enthusiastically agreed with this decision, arguing for an alliance across China's socio-economic classes. Mao was considered an intellectual by some, a poet, and a student of Chinese history and literature. From an early age, Mao was a voracious reader. Let's fix that by taking a long, hard look at the messed up truth of Mao Zedong. The monarchy was abolished, creating the , but the monarchist Yuan became president. Li authored a series of New Youth articles on the in Russia, during which the Communist under the leadership of had seized power. A brief period of liberalization followed while Mao and Lin plotted a comeback. Adopting Lenin's advice, the delegates agreed to an alliance with the "bourgeois democrats" of the KMT for the good of the "national revolution". " Mobo Gao, in his 2008 book The Battle for China's Past: Mao and the Cultural Revolution, credits him for raising the average life expectancy from 35 in 1949 to 63 by 1975, bringing "unity and stability to a country that had been plagued by civil wars and foreign invasions", and laying the foundation for China to "become the equal of the great global powers". Mao had successfully applied Mobile Warfare in the Korean War, and was able to encircle, push back and then halt the UN forces in Korea, despite the clear superiority of UN firepower. Mao himself claimed that a total of 700,000 people were killed in attacks on "counter-revolutionaries" during the years 1950—1952. Students in Beijing rallying during the May Fourth Movement Zhang banned the Student Association, but Mao continued publishing after assuming editorship of the liberal magazine New Hunan Xin Hunan and offered articles in popular local newspaper Justice Ta Kung Po. There are sides of Mao that are heroic. At the same time, the CPC urged peasants in newly formed communes and in city neighborhoods to take the first steps toward industrialization, forging steel through the building and use of backyard blast furnaces. Industry came under state ownership and China's farmers began to be organised into collectives. Further, many children who became emaciated and malnourished during years of hardship and struggle for survival died shortly after the Great Leap Forward came to an end in 1962. Although he was proclaimed Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, Mao's power was diminished, as his control of the Red Army was allocated to. After a brutal civil war that killed an estimated 7. After all, he did his thing in "distant" China, and thus avoids being mentioned in some of the more Europe-centric history writings. When that didn't work, he sent the army in. Some scholars, such as Mobo Gao, claim the case for this is overstated. Reportedly, they use to seem semi-legitimate on paper: For instance, Wu recounts a story from his own laogai days, when a "worker" hadn't been able to meet his quota. These campaigns were given urgency in October 1950, when Mao made the decision to send the , a special unit of the , into the and fight as well as to reinforce the armed forces of North Korea, the , which had been in full retreat. During the early 1960s, Mao continued his restless challenge of what he perceived as new forms of domination in his words, "revisionism," or "capitalist restoration". While one-tenth of Chinese people—an estimated 100 million—did suffer during the period, some scholars, such as Lee Feigon and Mobo Gao, claim there were many great advances, and in some sectors the Chinese economy continued to outperform the West. There are sides that are worshipped. Some unconfirmed reports also indicate he may have had Lou Gehrig's disease and Parkinson's disease. An overview map of the Long March On October 14, 1934, the Red Army broke through the KMT line on the Jiangxi Soviet's south-west corner at Xinfeng with 85,000 soldiers and 15,000 party cadres and embarked on the "". [ ] Mao's major contribution to the military science is his theory of , with not only guerrilla warfare but more importantly, methodologies. In doing so, he molded his men into a disciplined, efficient fighting force. At the meeting he announced that "To distribute resources evenly will only ruin the Great Leap Forward. He was, and still is, known worldwide as "Chairman Mao. If not half, one-third, or one-tenth—50 million—die. Mao published his first article in New Youth in April 1917, instructing readers to increase their physical strength to serve the revolution. The resulting treaty reflected Stalin's dominance and his willingness to help Mao. In the mountainous area they were unable to grow enough crops to feed everyone, leading to food shortages throughout the winter. The result, compounded in some areas by drought and in others by floods, was that rural peasants were left with little food for themselves and many millions starved to death in the. Mao was a visionary, a poet, a scholar and to some a demi-god who by virtue of his will and wisdom remade China from a poor country into one of the world's superpowers. " While he was not willing to acknowledge that only abandonment of the GLF could solve these problems, he did strongly demand that they be addressed. The total number of dead from 1959 to 1961 was between 30 million and 40 million -- the population of California. Starting in 1951, Mao initiated two successive movements in an effort to rid urban areas of corruption by targeting wealthy capitalists and political opponents, known as the. In 1923, the Kuomintang KMT nationalist party had allied with the CCP to defeat the warlords who controlled much of northern China. While there, they developed links with local communities, redistributed and farmed the land, offered medical treatment, and began literacy programs. Senior officials who reported the truth of the famine to Mao were branded as "right opportunists. If we have shortcomings, we are not afraid to have them pointed out and criticized, because we serve the people. The 100,000 who escaped headed to southern Hunan, first crossing the after heavy fighting, and then the , in where they took in January 1935. Mao continued to study on his own and at age sixteen left home to complete his elementary school training in the Hunanese capital of Changsha. 1, Fall 1984 New York: The Asia Society. 9, 1976 , the father of modern China, is not only remembered for his impact on Chinese society and culture but for his global influence, including on political revolutionaries in the United States and the Western world in the 1960s and 1970s. His reliance on the peasantry a major departure from prevailing Soviet doctrine and dependence on guerrilla warfare in the revolution were essential to the Communist triumph in China. His supporters claim that his policies laid the groundwork for China's later rise to become an economic superpower, while others claim that his policies delayed economic development and that China's economy underwent its rapid growth only after Mao's policies had been widely abandoned. It was during this time that he began to read Marxist literature. In Tiananmen Square in Beijing, a huge portrait of Mao still looms. The human suffering from it and the famine that soon followed was even worse. " Mao's poems and writings are frequently cited by both Chinese and non-Chinese. He was a studied war tactician and a savvy steeped in the ideology of. A few years before modern China's formation, to members of the CPC, Mao spoke of his party's most noble principle; to "serve the people. Many farmers moved into steel production, which didn't prove economically sound. Given the lengthy gaps between the censuses and doubts over the reliability of the data, an accurate figure is difficult to ascertain. Official history in China states that Lin was planning a military coup or an assassination attempt on Mao. In 1969 Mao designated Defense Minister Lin Biao, a Cultural Revolution ally, as his heir apparent. " , Mao's personal secretary, goes further and claims he was dismissive of the suffering and death caused by his policies: "Mao's way of thinking and governing was terrifying. In 1971 Lin was killed in a plane crash while fleeing China after an alleged assassination attempt on Mao. When the enemy advances, we retreat. He was also known as a great poet. His male attendants tended to be rather easy on the eye, and he was known to require them to give him a nightly massage or rather, "massage" to help him sleep. Due to its recognizability, the spelling was used widely, even by the Foreign Ministry of the PRC after pinyin became the PRC's official romanization system for in 1958. In an effort to win favour with their superiors and avoid being purged, each layer in the party hierarchy exaggerated the amount of grain produced under them. At least 160,000 civilians are believed to have perished during , which lasted from June until October. For example, the well-known booklet of Mao's political statements, , was officially entitled Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung in English translations. Mao nevertheless supported Chiang's , who embarked on the attack in 1926 on warlords. The famine spread to Shaoshan, where starving peasants seized his father's grain. In August 1921, he founded the Self-Study University, through which readers could gain access to revolutionary literature, housed in the premises of the Society for the Study of , a Qing dynasty Hunanese philosopher who had resisted the Manchus. In December 1919, Mao helped organise a general strike in Hunan, securing some concessions, but Mao and other student leaders felt threatened by Zhang, and Mao returned to Beijing, visiting the terminally ill Yang Changji. Children: Mao Anying, Mao Anqing, Mao Anlong, Yang Yuehua, Li Min, Li Na• Mao's Legacy Today After Mao's death in 1976, party leaders carefully pointed out "mistakes" that he made in the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. Whereas the three-anti campaign was a focused purge of government, industrial and party officials, the five-anti campaign set its sights slightly broader, targeting capitalist elements in general. Mao Zedong, 1957 Mao was a Chinese communist leader and founder of the People's Republic of China. Meanwhile, KMT troops had invaded Jinggangshan, leaving them without a base. In December, they tried to overthrow Mao, resulting in the , during which Mao's loyalists tortured many and executed between 2000 and 3000 dissenters. He [saw] himself as a savior of the nation and its people. They attempted to marginalise Mao by taking control of economic policy and asserting themselves politically as well. For example, in his biography of Mao, notes that in the , Mao gave explicit instructions that "no cadre is to be killed", but in practice allowed security chief to drive opponents to suicide and that "this pattern was repeated throughout his leadership of the People's Republic". State visits Country Date Host December 16, 1949 November 2—19, 1957 During his leadership, Mao traveled outside China on only two occasions, both state visits to the Soviet Union. Mao Zedong: Biographical and Political Profile Asia for Educators Columbia University Mao Zedong: Biographical and Political Profile The Early Years Mao Zedong 1893-1976 was both a product and a part of the revolutionary change in 20th-century China. After years of military conflict, the Cultural Revolution officially ended in 1976. Becker says that "Mao believed that the bomb was a 'paper tiger', declaring to Khrushchev that it would not matter if China lost 300 million people in a nuclear war: the other half of the population would survive to ensure victory". " On January 21, 1949, Kuomintang forces suffered great losses in decisive battles against Mao's forces. Further information: Mao died just after midnight 00:10 September 9, 1976, age 82. 1936—1949: Chairman,• However, his activities were by no means restricted to women. Mao's career in the army was brief and uneventful. During Mao's era, China was involved in the , the , the , and the rise of. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets CSS if you are able to do so. At a large Communist Party conference in Beijing in January 1962, called the "", State Chairman Liu Shaoqi denounced the Great Leap Forward as responsible for widespread famine. Mao's forces proceeded north, through hundreds of kilometres of , an area of quagmire where they were attacked by and where many soldiers succumbed to famine and disease. In August 1938, the Red Army formed the and the , which were nominally under the command of Chiang's. Marching through the mountain ranges around , in Moukung, Western Szechuan, they encountered the 50,000-strong CPC Fourth Front Army of , and together proceeded to Maoerhkai and then. — , a leading Communist Party official under Mao and In mainland China, Mao is still revered by many members and supporters of the Communist Party and respected by a great number of the general population as the " of modern China", credited for giving "the Chinese people dignity and self-respect. Why are you getting so excited about it? At age thirteen, after five years of education in the local primary school, he was forced by his father to leave school and return to the farm. State Chairman and General Secretary favoured the idea that Mao be removed from actual power as China's head of state and government but maintain his ceremonial and symbolic role as Chairman of the Communist Party of China, with the party upholding all of his positive contributions to the revolution. The repainting of the portrait was meant to be kept top secret. Later, more replica mangoes were sent on tour around China. Chiang ignored the orders of the Wuhan-based left KMT government and marched on Shanghai, a city controlled by Communist militias. " It was with this same near-religious fervor that Mao's radicalized "little generals" set out to do their master's bidding. There are unconfirmed reports that he possibly had in addition to , also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. China is much different now, with an economy that borders on capitalism, investments from outside its borders, and a standing in the world that invites closer scrutiny and sometimes condemnation of its political and social structure. The CPC declared that Lin was planning to depose Mao and posthumously expelled Lin from the party. In the article "Mao Zedong and the Famine of 1959—1960: A Study in Wilfulness", published in 2006 in , Professor Thomas P. Several of these advocated views, calling for the liberation of women in Chinese society; Mao was influenced by his forced arranged-marriage. Originally, the repainting was done in a temporary tent. His later years saw attempts to build bridges with the United States, Japan and Europe. [ ] Partly surrounded by hostile American military bases in South Korea, Japan, and , China was now confronted with a new threat from the Soviet Union north and west. the violence he erected into a whole system far exceeds any national tradition of violence that we might find in China. Many claim that Mao responded to Liu and Deng's movements by launching the in 1966. Yu remembers how they genuinely thought that people wearing too fashionable clothes or haircuts were monsters, and how they persecuted people. Short argues, "Mao's tragedy and his grandeur were that he remained to the end in thrall to his own revolutionary dreams. China had already been ravaged by the Second Sino-Japanese War, which basically pitted the Japanese forces against and the rising Communist movement in a draining three-way struggle, and millions had died of battle and starvation alike over the eight years before Japan's defeat. There he became caught up in the intellectual and political activity of the May Fourth Movement. Google has revealed what many in the Internet world have known for some time -- China routinely hacks into U. From Zunyi, Mao led his troops to , where they faced armed opposition but successfully crossed the river. United States fliers shot down over North China. Mao's body was later permanently interred in the in Beijing. Inaugural holder• Photo of Mao Zedong sitting, published in "Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung", ca. This convinced him of the revolutionary potential of the peasantry, an idea advocated by the KMT leftists but not the Communists. So, the extermination of sparrows actually resulted in lower rice yields. He is also known as a political intellect, theorist, military strategist, and poet. My own view is that this is an instance of Mao's use of hyperbole, another being his casual acceptance of death of half the population during a nuclear war. But at a cost in human lives that is staggering. But either way, the end result was the same — citizens were more reluctant to criticize Mao and the government in the future. Armed students — the Red Guard — fought each other and killed others they deemed to be enemies of Mao and communism. Revolution is not a dinner party, nor an essay, nor a painting, nor a piece of embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so leisurely and gentle, so temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. Following the establishment of the PRC People's Republic of China in 1949, Mao was responsible for many of the political initiatives that transformed the face of China. The reason behind this ruthless order was as pragmatic as it was horrifying. Mao's goal was to make his people bloody their hands personally, so everyone had committed terrible deeds in the rise of Mao's regime. At the time, few people in China had ever seen a mango. Thanks to his status, Mao wasn't exactly short of adoring members of the prettier gender. In foreign policy he led China's divorce from the Soviet Union. 1954—1959:• They were initially successful, but the KMT counter-attacked, and pushed the CPC back; over the next few weeks, they fought an entrenched guerrilla war in the mountains. Mao was a vocal anti-imperialist and in his writings he lambasted the governments of Japan, UK and US, describing the latter as "the most murderous of hangmen". Both men are thought of as having done terrible things yet this does not necessarily prevent them from being used as positive symbols. Tens of millions of people were persecuted during the Revolution, while the estimated number of deaths ranges from hundreds of thousands to millions, including , the. He was eventually forced to abandon the policy in 1962, and he lost political power to moderate party leaders such as and. Mao believed that a revolution of culture would unseat and unsettle the "ruling class" and keep China in a state of "perpetual revolution" that, theoretically, would serve the interests of the majority, rather than a tiny and privileged elite. The Communists and KMT were again temporarily allied during eight years of war with Japan 1937-1945 , but shortly after the end of World War Two, civil war broke out between them. Whatever the cause of the disaster, Mao lost esteem among many of the top party cadres. Published Works: poem, 1929 , 1937 , Mao's Little Red Book 1964—1976• And he exposes the extent of the violence used against the peasants": Mass killings are not usually associated with Mao and the Great Leap Forward, and China continues to benefit from a more favourable comparison with Cambodia or the Soviet Union. Anhui wants to do so much, which is quite all right, but make it a principle to have no deaths. They reached Hunan, where they were attacked by the KMT and fled after heavy losses. Contents• Jung Chang and Jon Halliday claim that the uprising was in fact sabotaged by Mao to allow him to prevent a group of KMT soldiers from defecting to any other CPC leader. and cement his own position as "the man who leads planet Earth into communism. Born: Dec. Harry Wu, who spent 19 years in labor camps, has estimated that from the 1950s through the 1980s, 50 million Chinese passed through the Chinese version of the Soviet gulag. in Shaoshan, in 2010, by which time it had become a tourist destination While working on his father's farm, Mao read voraciously and developed a "political consciousness" from 's booklet which lamented the deterioration of Chinese power and argued for the adoption of. Mao claimed he needed to sleep with many women to help him live longer. The split concerned the leadership of. Domestically, he became increasingly wary of his subordinates' approach to development, fearing that it was fostering deep social and political inequalities. Said , national police chief: "Don't say it is wrong of them to beat up bad persons: if in anger they beat someone to death, then so be it. A reluctant Mao finally called in the Red Army to put down the marauding Red Guards when they began attacking Communist Party members, but not before 1 million Chinese died. China is such a populous nation, it is not as if we cannot do without a few people. The policy was abandoned and Mao's position weakened. confirms that far from being ignorant or misled about the famine, the Chinese leadership were kept informed about it all the time. Mao set up a Changsha branch, also establishing a branch of the Socialist Youth Corps and a Cultural Book Society which opened a bookstore to propagate revolutionary literature throughout Hunan. [ ] In 1957, Mao also gave the impression that he might even welcome a. Discussion Questions• In late May, Mao co-founded the Hunanese Student Association with and , organizing a student strike for June and in July 1919 began production of a weekly radical magazine, Xiang River Review Xiangjiang pinglun. From 1953—1958, Mao played an important role in enforcing in China, constructing the , launching the , and initiating the "" project. At times Jackson, for all his flaws, is invoked as representing an egalitarian strain within the American democratic tradition, a of the people who rose to power via straight talk and was not allied with moneyed interests. He developed an admiration for the strong emperors in earlier periods of Chinese history and for certain Western statesmen including George Washington. The KMT armies adopted a policy of of the Red armies. " Base in Jinggangshan: 1927—1928 Mao in 1927 The CPC Central Committee, hiding in Shanghai, expelled Mao from their ranks and from the Hunan Provincial Committee, as punishment for his "military opportunism", for his focus on rural activity, and for being too lenient with "bad gentry". Although he described his father as a "rich peasant," the family clearly had to work hard for a living. As the tells us, China has admitted that Mao Zedong made some mistakes. The environmental damage the Great Leap Forward caused was horrendous. In less than two years, millions of people starved to death, and although an unfortunate period of drought played a part, the tragedy was largely the result of Mao Zedong's ill-advised decision to initiate the Great Leap Forward, which completely failed to account for necessary food production. His work at the Institute, which included ideological and organizational instruction for peasant leaders, opened his eyes to the revolutionary potential of the Chinese peasantry. The split helped to determine the framework of the Second Cold War in general, and influenced the course of the Second Vietnam War in particular. The official statistic is 20 million deaths, as given by. It takes a lot to keep a country as vast as China under your thumb, and as the and tell us, Mao Zedong did this with a very special secret weapon: He turned himself into the central figure of a cult-like movement. The worst of the famine was steered towards enemies of the state. In May 1937, a Communist Conference was held in Yan'an to discuss the situation. " Mao was frequently likened to China's First Emperor , notorious for , and personally enjoyed the comparison. One-and-a-half million people died and much of the country's cultural heritage was destroyed. However high and mighty Mao Zedong was officially said to be, when you got up close to the Great Helmsman there was probably no mistaking him as anything other than human. Parents: Mao Yichang, Wen Qimei• and to withdraw from active decision making. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, or simply the Cultural Revolution, was designed to shrug off the effects of the Great Leap Forward, rid the CPC and the country of those people who didn't agree with his vision, and move forward toward a stronger China. It is estimated that hundreds of thousands of people, perhaps millions, perished in the violence of the Cultural Revolution. Hiroshima took nine seconds; Changchun took five months. In comparison, the Great Leap probably did cause a much larger loss of life with its flawed economic policies which encompassed even the peasants. In particular, this leader of the revolution remained alert to what he saw to be new forms of oppression and sensitive to the interests of the oppressed. In Changsha, Mao had begun teaching history at the Xiuye Primary School and organizing protests against the pro-Duan Governor of Hunan Province, , popularly known as "Zhang the Venomous" due to his corrupt and violent rule. Censuses were carried out in China in 1953, 1964 and 1982. Because Mao wanted to pay back early to the Soviets debts totalling 1. 1,"cf":"300x250","cp":"562127","ct":". As tells us, Mao scoffed at baths, preferring instead to be rubbed down with hot towels and taking the occasional cold shower during wintertime. The Chinese initially received significant help from the Soviet Union, but relations soon began to cool. that generated those violent actions. As the reports, Mao had specifically requested that his body be cremated, but the Communist party officials decided to embalm it instead. A battalion led by General was ordered to take the city of on August 1, 1927, in what became known as the. Former Party official Su Shachi has opined that "he was a great historical criminal, but he was also a great force for good. The quota was "one per thousand members of population," meaning the Chairman specifically ordered his countrymen to kill 0. Yi introduced Mao to General , a senior KMT member who held the loyalty of troops stationed along the Hunanese border with Guangdong. Both the internal crisis and the external threat called for extraordinary statesmanship from Mao, but as China entered the new decade the statesmen of China were in hostile confrontation with each other. At one point, pus was oozing out of his gums and his teeth reportedly looked like they were "painted green," thanks to his near-total aversion of dental hygiene and tendency to chew tea leaves. In Shanghai, Mao met an old teacher of his, , a revolutionary and member of the KMT , or Chinese Nationalist Party, which was gaining increasing support and influence. At the First KMT Congress, held in in early 1924, Mao was elected an alternate member of the KMT Central Executive Committee, and put forward four resolutions to decentralise power to urban and rural bureaus. Lin was later officially named as Mao's successor. Remaining opium production shifted south of the Chinese border into the region. It became a that he suffered from multiple lung and heart ailments during his later years. Mao's response was to ignore them. One million Chinese filed past to pay their final respects, many crying openly or displaying sadness, while foreigners watched on television. The first session of the was attended by 13 delegates, Mao included. Some were beaten to death, some even eaten -- all for the promulgation of Maoism. There is some debate among historians about whether Mao originally planned to punish the critics, or if he only decided later to take advantage of the opportunity. MacFarquhar and Schoenhals assert that in rural China alone some 36 million people were persecuted, of whom between 750,000 and 1. A major publishing house was interested in the story but was not willing to pay that price, so the deal fell through. His political views were shaped by -led protests which erupted following a famine in , the capital of Hunan; Mao supported the protesters' demands, but the armed forces suppressed the dissenters and executed their leaders. Hua Guofeng concluded the service with 20-minute-long eulogy atop Tiananmen Gate. [ ] As an example, the followed Mao's examples of guerrilla warfare to considerable political and military success even in the 21st century.。 。 。 。 。

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Mao Zedong

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The messed up truth of Mao Zedong

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Mao Tse

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10 Horrible Facts About Mao Zedong's Policies and His Personal Life

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